- H. K. Zhang, Y. Chen, J. Kang, A. Lisok, M. G. Pomper, E. M. Boctor, “Prostate specific membrane antigen-targeted photoacoustic imaging of prostate cancer in vivo,” Journal of Biophotonics 11(9), e201800021, 1 Sep. 2018
- Y. Wu, W. Lesniak, J. Kang, S. Ray, M. G. Pomper, E. M. Boctor, “Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of aggressive prostate cancer in vivo using PAMAM dendrimer conjugated agent,” IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, Accepted, Las Vegas, CA, USA, 2020.
- J. Kang, Y. Wu, A. Lisok, M. G. Pomper, S. Ray, E. M. Boctor, “Contrast-enhanced molecular photoacoustic imaging of aggressive prostate cancer using fluorescence-quenching prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted dye,” IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, TuD8.2, 7 Oct. 2019.
- Y. Wu, J. Kang, H. K. Zhang, M. G. Pomper, E. M. Boctor, “Effective multi-spectral photoacoustic imaging of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted agent for aggressive prostate cancer detection,” IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, TuD8.1, 7 Oct. 2019.
A sensitive, noninvasive method to detect localized prostate cancer, particularly for early detection and repetitive study in patients undergoing active surveillance, remains an unmet need. Here, we propose a molecular photoacoustic (PA) imaging approach by targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), which is over-expressed in the vast majority of prostate cancers. We performed spectroscopic PA imaging in an experimental model of prostate cancer, namely, in immunocompromised mice bearing PSMA+ (PC3 PIP) and PSMA− (PC3 flu) tumors through administration of the known PSMA-targeted fluorescence agent, YC-27. Differences in contrast between PSMA+ and isogenic control tumors were observed upon PA imaging, with PSMA+ tumors showing higher contrast in average of 66.07-fold with 5 mice at the 24-hour postinjection time points. These results were corroborated using standard near-infrared fluorescence imaging with YC-27, and the squared correla- tion between PA and fluorescence intensities was 0.89. Spectroscopic PA imaging is a new molecular imaging modality with sufficient sensitivity for targeting PSMA in vivo, demonstrating the potential applications for other saturable targets relevant to cancer and other disorders.